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How to Build a Computer




from wikiHow - The How to Manual That You Can Edit

Branded computers can offer both value and performance, the parts used can be powerful and not very expensive, and you can switch on and start work. Yet parts are often short-spec in one place or another. Sadly you'll often get a performance "bottleneck" such as a slow graphics card, only a basic amount of memory, or a slimline motherboard with too few upgrade slots. Luckily, computers are surprisingly easy to build. If you can afford the time to plan and build your own machine, you can design a system more targeted toward your own use.

Steps


  1. Read and follow How to Choose Components for Building a Computer. The more preparation, research and careful selection of parts you do (and making it), the less proportion of your life you will spend making the darn thing work.
  2. Open the case.
  3. Attach the PSU (power supply unit) to the inside of the case, following the instructions included with the case (some cases might have this step completed).
  4. Identify the power leads.
  5. Identify the front panel leads.
  6. Locate the motherboard. Place it on top of its antistatic bag.
  7. Observe the missing pins in the processor and match these with the socket on the motherboard.
  8. Insert the processor into the motherboard. Carefully open the CPU's socket and carefully insert the processor (no force needed). If it doesn't slip right in, or it feels like you have to push, it is probably misaligned. Close the socket and ensure the CPU is secure. Some sockets have small arms while others have complex assemblies to open and close the socket.
  9. Apply good thermal paste to the CPU. Use no more than a rice sized amount and spread it in a thin layer over the entire processor surface (or if this is an older Athlon series without the protective cover, only apply to the chip in the center of the processor board). Adding too much thermal paste will slow the transfer of heat, making it more difficult to cool the CPU quickly.
  10. Attach the heat sink. This varies from heat sink to heat sink, so read the instructions. Here is the procedure for the cooling device in this example:
    • Push the fixing clip through the cooler and clip on the short end onto the processor socket.
    • Use the tool to push the other end of the clip to the other side of the processor socket.
    • If you have an adjustable speed fan for the CPU cooler then the fan should be fitted to the case after the motherboard has been installed.

  11. Insert the RAM in the proper slots by opening the slots and pushing the RAM in until the little handles can lock it into position. Note how the RAM and slots are keyed--line them up so they will fit in properly.
  12. Your motherboard should come with its own IO backplate (former). It is unlikely that your case will have an appropriate backplate for your motherboard. Take out the one that came with your case (this sometimes takes a bit of force). Sometimes they have screws to hold them in place, but most are held in only by friction. Pop it out be pressing on the bracket from rear side of the case.
  13. Knock out any tabs covering IO components up on the motherboard's former.
  14. Insert the motherboard former into the case.
  15. Find some standoffs (e.g. metal jack screw standoff #4-40) that raise the motherboard just off the case surface, also some screws (e.g. #4-40 x 3/16" long) that fit in the spacers to screw the motherboard to the case.
  16. The number of spacers required will be determined by the number of shielded holes in the motherboard. Position the motherboard to discover where to screw in the standoffs.
  17. Screw the standoffs in the case at the relevant positions and place the motherboard on top ensuring that the ports fit snugly into the former.
  18. Screw the motherboard on to the standoffs. It helps to hold on to the heatsink.
  19. Attach the video card (if you have one) and any other PCI cards into the motherboard. Be sure to secure them into place via the proper screws.
  20. At this point it is a good idea to connect the case connectors. These tend to be located together on the motherboard near the front of the case. The order in which these are connected will depend on which is easiest physically. Normally top left to bottom right is easiest.~ Soft power switch (motherboard power switch). It does not matter which way around this is connected~ Reset switch, again it does not matter which way around this is connected~ LED hard disk indicator (sometimes called power LED)~ Sleep message indicator (if the case supports this)~ Internal speaker connection
  21. If you have a front audio panel then remove any jumpers that are installed on the motherboard connector and connect the front audio panel lead. Normally there will be a blank pin so that there is only one way of connecting the lead. Make sure you match up the right connectors, as they will be either AC97 of HDAudio. Assume AC97 when in doubt.
  22. Similarly, locate the front panel USB connector(s) (these are additions to the rear USB connectors) and connect the USB lead(s). There is usually only one way in which these can be connected.
  23. Decide where you want to install the various drives (floppy drive, DVD drive, hard disk).
  24. Remove the front cover. There are normally cleats that can be squeezed by hand to release the front cover from the chassis.
  25. Remove any metal barriers that are in the way between the drive and the front cover. Normally these are loosely moulded to the metal interior and can be removed by judicious wiggling until the barrier snaps off.
  26. Configure the jumpers on the CD/DVD/hard drives. If you are using IDE drives and putting them on the same channel, then you should configure the hard drive as master and the CD/DVD drive as slave; this will make boot-ups faster and prevent issues in the future. Otherwise, check the jumper on the DVD drive to ensure that it is set as Master if this will be the first drive on one of the Extended IDE (E-IDE) channels.
  27. Insert the DVD drive and floppy drive in through the front of the case. Some cases will have their own fascias that sit in front of the drives.
  28. Install the front cover back on to the chassis.
  29. A button on the fascia impinges on the drive button to transfer the action when operating of the drive. Use suitable fixing screws for each drive, normally 4 per drive to fix the drive into the cages built into the case. Ensure that the drives are flush up against the front of the case so that there is good positive action when using the buttons on the front of the case.
  30. Install the hard disk. For IDE drives, check the jumper. If this drive is the master (first hard disk with the bootable operating system) then the jumper should be set to master or Cable Select (CS). If the jumper is set to CS then the first connector on the IDE ribbon cable must be used for this drive. For SATA drives, it doesn't matter which end of the cable you use for the drive, and there are no jumpers to set. When installing the drive ensure that two screw holes can be used on each side to attach the drive to the chassis.
  31. Connect the IDE or SATA cable to the DVD ROM drive. For IDE, the blue end connects to the motherboard and the red strip connects to the right handside at the back of the drive. Blips in the plastic surround help you get the cable connected the right way round. Check the jumper of the drive. This should be set to master if it is the first drive on this IDE bus. The optical drives and the hard disks must be installed on separate IDE buses. When installing the IDE cable to the motherboard you may need to support the motherboard with your fingers to avoid bending it too much. It is simple for SATA: simply connect the drive to the motherboard.
  32. Untangle the power leads with the various connectors and select the leads which do not contain the small floppy disk power lead. Install one of these power leads into the DVD drive.
  33. For legacy operating systems and optical drives, locate the DVD ROM audio lead and connect this to the DVD drive. Find the location on the motherboard for the DVD audio lead and connect it. Newer drives play audio digitally through their regular data connection.
  34. If your computer has a floppy drive, connect the floppy drive ribbon cable. The twist goes at the floppy drive end and the red stripe (pin 1) goes to the left at the back of the floppy drive. There is normally a blip in the plastic surround that corresponds with a gap on the motherboard and floppy drive connections. The twist in the cable identifies it as floppy drive A:, while no twist designates it as the second floppy drive, B:.
  35. If you connected a floppy drive, the small floppy power cable is installed next. There is only one way round that this can be installed too.
  36. Install the IDE or SATA cable for the hard disk. The blue end connects to the motherboard and the red strip connects to the right handside at the back of the hard disk. Blips in the plastic surround help you get the cable connected the right way round. For SATA, use either side of the cable for either connection.
  37. Connect the motherboard power leads. There are various types of motherboard power connectors. Older ATX motherboards will have a 20-pin connector and possibly a separate 4-pin 12V connector, while newer motherboards will have a 24-pin connector and a separate 6 or 8-pin 12V connector. Legacy computers may have two or more in-line connectors.
  38. Connect case fans if you have them. Most fans will come with their own adapters for plugging into the motherboard or directly attaching to the power supply.
  39. Install the CPU cooler (heatsink or heatsink with fan assembly). You may need to remove screws or retainers that hold the slot blanks in place. Some cooler simply clip to the motherboard's plastic housing or clip through holes in the motherboard.
  40. Connect the CPU cooler's fan to the motherboard.
  41. Ensure screws are used to hold in the PCI slot covers.
  42. Put the case back together and connect only a keyboard, mouse, and monitor to the computer. Once the operating system and drives are installed, connect the other peripherals you have.


Software Installation
  1. Plug in your computer. Turn on the computer and immediately open the CD drive. Put the CD for your operating system in the drive and close it. Restart your computer by pressing the power button until it shuts off and then push the power button again to turn the computer back on. Don't forget to turn your monitor on.
  2. Check your motherboard manual for keys to use to start the "boot sequence" or "CMOS settings", or sometimes "BIOS settings". Click this button when the motherboard splash screen appears. Set your computer's CD/DVD drive as the first boot option. You may have to reboot your computer for these settings to take effect.
  3. Follow the instructions to install your operating system. With most operating systems, this will include: Formatting the hard drive, configuring the boot loader, configuring the operating system, and finally installing the operating system. Once the operating system is installed, you're ready to go!


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Video



Tips


  • Stick the license number sticker on the side of the PC for future reference.
  • Each power supply cable will only fit in the correct orientation, but pressure will still be needed to push the cables in. If using a newer power supply with a 8-pin EPS 12V connector and a PCI Express 8-pin connector, don't attempt to force the cables into place.
  • Use zip ties to carefully bundle all of the cables, and route them to prevent them from blocking the airflow. If possible, avoid using IDE components such as hard drives and optical drives, as the standard ribbon cable will block airflow.
  • Don't leave the hardware on your floor for days while you figure out what you should do, as this may lead to electrostatic discharge which can damage or ruin computer components(it only takes about 10 volts to kill some computer parts). When not attached to the motherboard and case, all components should be left in their anti-static bags. An alternative to this is placing the items on a non-conductive surface, such as a wood or glass table or desk.
  • If you put the computer system together and it does not work, take out everything except the power supply, motherboard, RAM, and processor cooler (and video card if not using an on-board video card). Ensure that it works by viewing your BIOS start up screen. Turn it off, then plug in your hard drives and verify that it works. Turn it off, then plug in your CD-ROM and ensure that it works. Turn it off, and continue to plug in each additional peripheral until everything is plugged in and working. The idea here is to put in the minimum components to get it to power up, then add one at a time so you know what component is causing the problem.
  • It may be very helpful to request the assistance of a friend who is familiar with building computers. At the very least, ask for their opinions on the parts you plan to use.


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Warnings


  • Do not use force to insert any component into any slot or socket. The tolerances of newer hardware components may be narrow, but everything should still fit without the need to apply too much force. Memory modules are among the few types of components that may require a bit of pressure to install. Before installing your memory modules, make sure they match the memory slots by comparing the notches.
  • Do not force cable connections. Fortunately, cables at the back of a computer will only fit onto their intended connector. All cables, except for coaxial and some laptop power connections, will only connect when they are in the same orientation as their connector. For example, DVI and VGA video cables have a trapezoidal connector, not a rectangular one.
  • If you are unsure about any aspect of the construction of your computer, DO NOT try "winging" it, either ask for someone who knows what they're doing to "spot" you while you build or hire a professional to do it for you.
  • Avoid electrostatic discharge when installing components. Wear a static wristband or regularly ground yourself by touching a metal part of the case before handling components. Read the Related wikiHow on How to Avoid Destroying a Computer With Electrostatic Discharge for additional information.
  • Double-check all connections before switching on the computer for the first time.
  • When plugging in CPUs and PATA (IDE) devices, be gentle. If you bend a pin, use tweezers or a narrow needle-nose pliers to straighten it. If you break a pin, on a CPU or CPU socket, your hardware will no longer function correctly. If you break a pin on an IDE connector, you have a 7 in 40 chance that you've broken a ground pin, which may not be critical to a device's functionality.


Related wikiHows




Sources and Citations





Article provided by wikiHow, a wiki how-to manual. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Build a Computer. All content on wikiHow can be shared under a Creative Commons license.








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